• A Hindu Undivided Family (HUF) is a unique form of business organization and a distinct tax entity recognized under Hindu Law in India. It is a form of joint family structure that consists of individuals lineally descended from a common ancestor, including their wives and unmarried daughters. Here are key features and characteristics of a Hindu Undivided Family:

    Key Features:

    1. Formation:

      • An HUF is formed automatically through the operation of law when a Hindu family exists. It doesn’t require a formal or legal agreement for its creation.
    2. Joint Family Structure:

      • An HUF includes the head of the family (known as “Karta”), his sons, his son’s sons, and so on, forming a joint family.
    3. Common Ancestor:

      • Members of an HUF share a common ancestor, and the family continues through lineal descendants.
    4. Hindu Law Applicability:

      • HUF is governed by Hindu law, and its creation is specific to Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs.
    5. Karta:

      • The head of the family, known as the Karta, is typically the senior-most male member. The Karta manages the family’s affairs and represents the HUF.
    6. HUF Property:

      • The property of an HUF consists of ancestral property and any property contributed to the HUF by its members. Ancestral property is property inherited up to four generations of male lineage.
    7. Income Tax Implications:

      • HUF is a separate tax entity for income tax purposes, and it is eligible to have its PAN (Permanent Account Number) and file income tax returns separately.
    8. Partition:

      • Members of an HUF have the right to seek a partition of the HUF property. Upon partition, each member becomes entitled to a share of the property, and a new HUF may be formed by the divided members.

    Income Tax Benefits:

    1. Separate Taxation:

      • HUF is taxed as a separate entity, and it has its own tax slab rates and exemptions.
    2. Income Splitting:

      • HUF allows for the splitting of income among family members, potentially resulting in lower overall tax liability.
    3. Tax Planning:

      • HUF offers tax planning opportunities through the allocation of income and investments among family members.


    Hindu Undivided Family is a unique concept rooted in Hindu law and culture in India. While it has income tax implications, it is also a form of joint family organization that allows for the pooling of family resources and collective ownership of property. It’s important to note that the concept of HUF is specific to India and is not applicable in other jurisdictions.