1. In the realm of corporate governance, Articles of Association (AOA) stand as a vital legal document, shaping the internal framework of a company. Together with the Memorandum of Association (MOA), these documents form the backbone of a company’s constitution, delineating the rules and regulations that govern its internal affairs. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the intricacies of AOA and explore the significance of its bylaws.

    Understanding Articles of Association:

    Definition and Significance: AOA, as defined by Section 5 of the Companies Act 2013, encapsulates the regulations for the management of a company. These regulations are pivotal in guiding the conduct of various activities within the company. The AOA acts as a contractual agreement between the company and its members, shaping their rights, obligations, and the overall functioning of the organization.

    Forms and Tables: AOA takes different forms based on the type of company. Tables F, G, H, I, and J in Schedule I of the Companies Act provide model forms for companies with diverse structures. Whether a company is limited by shares, guarantee, or is unlimited, these tables offer standardized templates for AOA.

    Crucial Contents of AOA:

    Share Capital: AOA defines the company’s share capital, including divisions, rights of shareholders, and their interrelations. It plays a pivotal role in determining the financial structure of the company.

    Lien of Shares: This clause empowers the company to retain or hold the possession of shares if a member fails to fulfill financial obligations.

    Transfer and Transmission of Shares: AOA outlines the procedures for the transfer of shares between shareholders and the transmission of shares in case of events like succession or death.

    Alteration of Capital: Provisions for changing the structure of share capital, whether by increase, decrease, or rearrangement, are articulated in the AOA.

    General Meetings and Proceedings: Regulations for conducting meetings, including the usage of voting rights, are meticulously detailed in the AOA.

    Board of Directors: AOA governs the appointment, compensation, credentials, and role of directors, as well as the conduct of board meetings.

    Borrowing Powers: It delineates the company’s authority to accept loans and create liabilities, subject to compliance with AOA provisions.

    Winding Up: Rules and regulations for the winding up of the company are defined in the AOA, ensuring a structured process during such events.

    The Entrenchment Clause:

    A notable addition to the Companies Act 2013 is the provision for an entrenchment clause. This clause makes specific provisions of AOA challenging to change, ensuring a more stringent process for amendments. Private companies require the approval of all members, while public companies necessitate a special resolution for including this clause.

    Legal Effects of AOA:

    AOA carries legal implications for various stakeholders:

    1. Members Bound to the Company: All members must adhere to AOA terms, preventing conflicts with the company’s bylaws.

    2. Company Bound to its Members: The AOA binds the company to its members collectively and individually.

    3. Members Bound to Members: Articles operate as a contractual obligation between the company and its members.

    4. Company and Outsiders: The AOA is not enforceable against third parties, safeguarding the company from external legal claims based on AOA provisions.


    In conclusion, understanding the nuances of Articles of Association and its bylaws is imperative for establishing a robust corporate governance framework. A well-crafted AOA not only ensures legal compliance but also contributes to the smooth functioning and sustained success of a company.

    [Note: This blog provides a comprehensive overview and does not substitute legal advice. It aims to enhance understanding and awareness of Articles of Association and its bylaws.]